AutoCAD has become the go-to tool for creating 2D drafting and architectural models and for documenting these models for later reuse or reference. AutoCAD is used by architects and civil engineers, graphic designers and illustrators, mechanics and engineers, machinists and assembly line workers, home builders and remodelers, automobile designers and auto body technicians, real estate developers, and many other individuals and small businesses.
History of AutoCAD
AutoCAD’s origin lies in the early 1980s. Its creator, Thomas Raiser, had become the co-owner of a company known as Micrografx that would eventually become a software development studio and then a software company called Micrografx PDS. Raiser’s interest was focused on the development of CAD software. Raiser and his partner, John Gaudiosi, had developed a drawing program called SynXpert in 1980, which was written in BASIC for the Altos platform. SynXpert ran on a Motorola 6800-series Z80 CPU. A year later, in 1981, Raiser decided to create a new CAD program. In order to design his CAD program, Raiser turned to Micrografx’s user base of architects and engineers.
The designers and users had input that became the cornerstone for the development of AutoCAD. AutoCAD was initially envisioned as a program that would replace the SynXpert drawing application.
In 1981, Raiser started AutoCAD as a research and development project. He worked from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. at his desk for a few weeks, leaving only briefly to eat and visit his family. In July of that year, Micrografx received a government grant of $100,000 to create a low-cost CAD program. Although Raiser had hoped to be able to use the grant for research and development, the grant went to marketing and sales to “drive product development.”
The initial release of AutoCAD was in December 1982 for the Macintosh. The program was available for $5,000. The first version was a “shell” or framework around a basic drawing application that was originally called Micrografx DRAW. Raiser wanted to target the architectural/design market, so the initial release of AutoCAD targeted a narrower audience than would be used by most other CAD programs.
After Raiser became the sole owner of Micrografx PDS, he renamed it to Autodesk,
AutoCAD creates a GDI-based user interface (GUI), including toolbars, menus, rulers and the 3D ribbon. It also provides an ODBC driver that allows a native database system to access the database, and an API that is compatible with other products. AutoCAD has a scripting language called AutoLISP that allows the programmer to create custom commands and tools. It has a visual LISP that allows users to create custom 3D and 2D visualizations and animations.
Most 3D and 2D tools are accessible through a button on the 3D ribbon. This ribbon also allows users to switch between the 3D and 2D perspectives of the current view (although the user cannot switch from 3D to 2D at this time, but can do so with the 3D view options). The command “View Options” lets the user configure and control the view with settings that affect how layers are displayed. The command “Object Palettes” allows a user to set an active palette of objects (categories) to which commands apply. It can be helpful to set up a specialized palette to help make sense of all the menus and toolbars.
The Command tab allows users to configure and launch a number of options and tasks. In addition, on the AutoCAD Ribbon options (other than the Goto command) can be configured by right-clicking on a button (or a tab). Options include:
File & Forms
Text & Clipart
View 3D and 2D
The Edit tab is used to configure the “Edit” commands. This includes:
The Options tab is used to configure the following:
Active 3D Object Palette
Support for Microsoft Windows platforms
The User tab is used to configure default settings for users and create profiles.
The User/Creation tab allows users to configure their home directory, which includes the default scale and preferences for the application (including the setting for what units are used for measurements). Also included are settings for the default location of all objects in the drawing (for example, whether the objects are created in a specific drawing or general office folder), default sizes
Ovulation and embryo transfer in the standing pig.
In vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization of sow oocytes were performed in serum-free TCM 199 containing 10% porcine follicular fluid. A higher percentage of oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage (56.2%) compared to oocytes matured and fertilized in TALP (30.4%). The highest rate of blastocyst formation (19.1%) was obtained when maturation and fertilization was carried out in serum-free medium plus porcine follicular fluid and 10% porcine follicular fluid, and sperm was used to inseminate mature oocytes. These results suggest that fertilization of mature oocytes in medium containing porcine follicular fluid increases their ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, the use of porcine follicular fluid and serum-free medium may be important for the production of embryos from the standing sow.Q:
In a topological space, does its topology itself extend to a larger topological space?
Let $X$ be a topological space and let $Y$ be a subspace of $X$ that is also a topological space. If $Y$ has a topology such that its topology extends to $X$, is there a way to explicitly describe this topology? Is it possible to characterize this topology without specifying a particular open set? For instance, if $X$ is an uncountable set, does the topology induced on $Y$ necessarily have to be non-Hausdorff? If so, what is the minimum cardinality of $X$ such that this is possible?
There is no explicit way to describe the topology that extends the topology of $Y$ to $X$. You can characterize such topologies using subspace topology. That is:
A topology $T$ on a space $X$ is called a subspace topology if $T$ is the topology with which $Y$ is endowed and for all $y\in Y$, $y\in U\in T\Leftrightarrow U\cap Y\in T$ for all $U\in T$.
The natural subspace topology on $Y$ in your case is the subspace topology with which $X$ is endowed. You can show that any open set in $X$ is also open
Art Board and Liquid Dimensioning:
Work in real-time in non-destructive mode. Use the new Liquid Dimension feature to place and fill, edit, and annotate dimensions, and create Dynamic Blocks, with the click of a button. Art Board gives you a versatile, non-destructive way to annotate drawing and view hidden layers, such as white spaces or hidden viewports. (video: 1:25 min.)
Data Linking, Micro Linking, Data/Link, and Linking Annotations:
Share and reuse data with other drawings. Linking Annotations let you connect annotations, text, symbols, and other objects and automate the sharing of those elements with other drawings. The Data Linking feature enables the automatic transfer of data to other drawings with the click of a button. You can also link the data into the future so that you can reuse it in future drawings.
You can now take advantage of advanced color model functionality to better model and render your color schemes. Learn more about AutoCAD color mode functionality and how to use it in your designs.
Additive and Multi-Threading:
Use additive technology to improve performance and take advantage of multi-threading for smoother operation.
Blank Layers, Control Points, and Chords:
Use blank layers, control points, and chords for easily connecting one object to another.
Tape Measure Tool and Precision:
Use the tape measure tool to accurately measure and place dimensions, quickly and easily.
Easily draw and edit images as vector paths. Enhance your drawings with images for more realism and creative control.
Organize Drafting with Groups and Editing:
Organize your drawings into sub-packages with Groups and edit drawings as a whole or as sub-packages.
Quality Tools, Drafting Accuracy, and Improvements to Transparency:
Quickly and easily create quality annotations, such as centering, rotation, and scale. For more information on improvements to transparency, see this blog post.
Collaboration and Sharing:
Enhance your collaborative workflows. Share your drawing with others. Use the new Copy Markup tool and Link to Link your annotations to your collaborative drawings.
New Raster and Vector Tools:
Import and export to various file formats, such as TIF, GIF, J
OS: Windows XP/Vista
CPU: Core2Duo, AMD Athlon X2
RAM: 1 GB
Hard Disk: 20 GB
Video Card: 512 MB
RAM: 2 GB
Video Card: 1 GB
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